Figure 1: 4D-printed dental filling material continuously change their shape and position from the center to the margins over time to prevent any marginal leakage or fracture.
Figure 2: The application of 4D printing with implant dentistry. A 4D-printed membrane is applied between a dental implant and a vital structure (maxillary sinus) to act as a soft cushion to prevent injury.
Figure 3: 4D-printed orthodontic appliances can be manufactured as to undergo controlled self-folding movement to take the teeth in certain direction and angulation in known time. The cross-section of the appliance showing the multilayered micro-constituents.