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Theory and Concept

  • Title Page

    • Concise Title
    • Author’s Full Name
    • Author’s Institute
    • Author’s Email
    • Corresponding Author
    • 3-10 Keywords

  • Abstract

    • 350 words max
    • Objective
    • Materials & Methods
    • Results
    • Innovation Statement
    • Conclusion

  • Background & Justification

    • Concise literature review
    • Justification for study
    • Objective or hypothesis
    • Explicit innovation statement

  • Materials & Methods

    • Detailed description of materials, including sources
    • Detailed description of study design, methods and models
    • Availability of Data and Materials statement

  • Results

    • Concise and accurate statement of results
    • Do not discuss findings
    • Order Figures and/or Tables logically

  • Discussion & Innovation

    • Discussion of results, with focus on your Innovation and its impact
    • Do not simply restate Results
    • Begin by answering the following question of each Figure and/or Table: Did we get the result we expected?
    • If Yes, then discuss why and what the implications are
    • If No, then discuss why not and what the implications are
    • Include relevant references; if none exist, openly speculate, making clear that you are speculating

  • Acknowledgements

    • List all contributors who did not meet our Authorship Criteria and their role in the study

  • Funding & Conflict of Interest

    • List all sources of funding used for the study
    • List any Conflict(s) of Interest

  • References

    • List all references cited in the order they appear in the text
    • See Reference Page for details

Author Instructions : Theory And Concept

Title Page

Concise title should include a concise description of the case(s) and innovation


Full names, institutional addresses and email addresses for all authors


If a collaboration group is to be listed as an author, list the Group name as an author. If you would like the names of the individual members of the Group to be searchable through their individual PubMed records, please include this information in the “Acknowledgements” section in accordance with the instructions below.


Indicate the corresponding author


Three to ten keywords representing the main content of the article


List Of Abbreviations
If abbreviations are used in the text they should be defined in the text at first use, and a list of abbreviations should be provided.


The abstract should not exceed 350 words. Minimize the use of abbreviations and do not cite references in the abstract.


The abstract must include the following separate sections:

  • BACKGROUND: Justification and purpose of the study
  • MATERIALS & METHODS: Key materials and methods; concise and accurate presentation of theoretical model or concept
  • RESULTS: Key findings
  • CONCLUSION: Conclusion and implications to field
  • INNOVATION: What innovation was tested or what innovation the present work will be applied to

Background And Justification

This section must be a concise, yet detailed, review of the literature with an emphasis on what is not known about the clinical problem and how this justifies your study.


Explicitly state the objective, aim or hypothesis of the study.


Explicitly state the innovation being presented or what innovation will arise from the theory or concept presented.

Materials And Methods

This section must include sufficient detail for other researchers to understand and independently test the theory, concept and/or model. Authors must include the following:

  • Full description of materials and sources
  • Full description of study design, methods, and/or interventions

Availability of Data and Materials


CTOR Press and INNOVATION strongly encourage authors to deposit all datasets from the study in publicly available repositories (where available and appropriate) or include the datasets as Supporting Information files. All such datasets should be in machine-readable format (such as spreadsheets rather than PDFs) whenever possible. Please see our list of publicly available repositories.


For instructions on how to cite your data and format this section see Preparing your Manuscript.


Authors must include an “Availability of Data and Materials” section in the Materials and Methods detailing where the datasets are located. Data availability statements can take one of the following forms (or a combination of more than one if required for multiple datasets):

  • The datasets generated and/or analyzed during the current study are available in the [NAME] repository, [PERSISTENT WEB LINK TO DATASETS]
  • The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
  • All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article [and its supplementary information files].
  • The datasets generated and/or analyzed during the current study are not publicly available due [REASON WHY DATA ARE NOT PUBLIC] but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
  • Data sharing is not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analyzed during the current study.
  • The data that support the findings of this study are available from [third party name] but restrictions apply to the availability of these data, which were used under license for the current study, and so are not publicly available. Data are however available from the authors upon reasonable request and with permission of [third party name].
  • Not applicable. If your manuscript does not contain any data, please state ‘Not applicable’ in this section.

Conflict of Interest


All financial and non-financial Conflict(s) of Interest must be declared in this section. See our Editorial Policies [internal link] for a full explanation of Conflict(s) of Interest. If you are unsure whether you or any of your co-authors have a Conflict of Interest, please contact the INNOVATION Editorial Office (INNOVATION email).


If models were tested, present findings for each model, presented in a logical sequence, where one model logically leads to the next.


If models were not tested, then present logical sequence of theoretical or conceptual results that could arise from the presented work.


Do not include any discussion of the findings in the Results.


Ensure that all Figures and Tables are referenced in the text of the Results.


Authors are encouraged to use subheadings to organize Results. Use the following as an example of formatting subheadings:



  • Initial model testing using normalized juvenile population
    1.1 Juvenile population in urban setting
    1.2 Juvenile population in rural setting
  • Initial model testing using normalized adult population
    2.1 Adult population in urban setting
    2.2 Adult population in rural setting


To initiate the Discussion, authors should answer a simple question for each Figure and Table: Did we obtain the result we expected or not? Use this as the starting point to then discuss your findings relative to existing data (which must be referenced) or to openly speculate on the implications of your data if no relevant existing data are available.


To tell a complete, logically structured story, discuss each Figure and Table in the sequence presented in the Results.


Using the Discussion to simply restate your results will result in immediate rejection of the manuscript.


Authors must provide a discussion of the innovation their study.


All funding sources for the research reported must be declared. The role of the funding body in the design of the study and collection, analysis, and interpretation of data and in writing the manuscript must be declared.


Acknowledge anyone who contributed to the article, but fails to meet our Authorship Criteria, including anyone who provided professional writing services or materials.


Authors should obtain permission to acknowledge from all those mentioned in this section.


See our Acknowledgements Criteria for more information.


GROUP AUTHORSHIP: if you would like the names of individual members of a collaboration or consortium to be searchable through PubMed, please ensure that the title of the collaboration or consortium is included on the Title Page, is entered into the ScholarOne Manuscript submission system and list the authors’ names as the last paragraph of the Acknowledgements. Please format the author’s names as follows:
First Name, Middle initial(s) (optional), Last Name (Institution and/or Country, optional).


Catherine M. Anderson, Charles R. Granhold (US University, FL), E. Raphael Landen (Canada), Marion A. Smith-Thompson (EU University, Austria)


Please note that individual names may not be present in the PubMed record at the time a published article is initially included in PubMed as it takes PubMed additional time to code this information.


See our References Guidelines for details on formatting references.